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CIQTEK is the manufacturer and global supplier of high-performance scientific instruments, such as Electron Microscopes, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (Electron Spin Resonance), Gas Adsorption Analyzers, quantum sensors, quantum computers, etc.
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Application of Gas Adsorption Technology in Conductive Paste Industry
Application of Gas Adsorption Technology in Conductive Paste Industry
Conductive paste is a special functional material with both conductive and bonding properties, widely used in new energy batteries, photovoltaic, electronics, chemical industry, printing, military and aviation and other fields. Conductive paste mainly includes conductive phase, bonding phase and organic carrier, of which the conductive phase is the key material of conductive paste, determining the electrical properties of the paste and the mechanical properties after film formation.   The commonly used materials of conductive phase include metal, metal oxide, carbon materials and conductive polymer materials, etc. It is found that the physical parameters such as specific surface area, pore size and true density of conductive phase materials have an important influence on the conductivity and mechanical properties of the slurry. Therefore, it is particularly important to accurately characterise physical parameters such as specific surface area, pore size distribution and true density of conductive phase materials based on gas adsorption technology. In addition, precise tuning of these parameters can optimise the conductivity of the pastes to meet the requirements of different applications.   01 Conductive paste introduction According to the actual application of different types of conductive paste is not the same, usually according to the different types of conductive phase, can be divided into conductive paste: inorganic conductive paste, organic conductive paste and composite conductive paste. Inorganic conductive paste is divided into metal powder and non-metallic two kinds of metal powder mainly gold, silver, copper, tin and aluminium, etc., non-metallic conductive phase is mainly carbon materials. Organic conductive paste in the conductive phase is mainly conductive polymer materials, which has a smaller density, higher corrosion resistance, better film-forming properties and in a certain range of conductivity adjustable and so on. Composite system conductive paste is currently an important direction of conductive paste research, the purpose is to combine the advantages of inorganic and organic conductive paste, the inorganic conductive phase and organic material support body organic combination, give full play to the advantages of both.   Conductive phase as the main functional phase in the conductive paste, to provide electrical pathway, to achieve electrical properties, its specific surface area, pore size and true density and other physical parameters have a greater impact on its conductive properties.   Specific surface area: the size of the specific surface area is the key factor affecting the conductivity, within a certain range, a larger specific surface area provides more electronic conduction pathways, reducing the resistance, making the conductive paste more conductive. High conductivity is critical in many applications, such as in electronic devices to ensure efficient conduction of circuits.   Pore size: ...
Magnesium Stearate in Pharmaceuticals - Specific Surface Area & Pore Size Analyzer Application
Magnesium Stearate in Pharmaceuticals - Specific Surface Area & Pore Size Analyzer Application
Have you ever noticed that commonly used pills or vitamin tablets have a thin coating on their surface? This is an additive made from magnesium stearate, which is usually added to medicines as a lubricant. So why is this substance added to medicines?     What is Magnesium Stearate?   Magnesium Stearate is a widely used pharmaceutical excipient. It is a mixture of magnesium stearate (C36H70MgO4) and magnesium palmitate (C32H62MgO4) as the main ingredients, which is a fine white non-sanding powder with a slippery sensation when in contact with the skin. Magnesium stearate is one of the most commonly used lubricants in pharmaceutical production, with good anti-adhesive, flow-increasing, and lubricating properties. The addition of magnesium stearate in the production of pharmaceutical tablets can effectively reduce the friction between the tablets and the die of the tablet press, greatly reducing the tablet force of the pharmaceutical tablet press and improving the consistency and quality control of the drug.     Magnesium Stearate Image from the Internet   The key property of magnesium stearate as a lubricant is its specific surface area, the larger the specific surface area, the more polar it is, the greater the adhesion, and the easier it is to distribute evenly on the particle surface during the mixing process, the better the lubricity. CIQTEK self-developed static volume method-specific surface and pore size analyzer V-Sorb X800 series can be used to test the gas adsorption of magnesium stearate and other materials, and analyze the material's BET surface area. The instrument is easy to operate, accurate, and highly automated.   Effect of Specific Surface Area on Magnesium Stearate Studies have pointed out that the physical properties of the lubricant can also have a significant impact on the pharmaceutical product, such as the lubricant surface condition, particle size, size of surface area, and structure of the crystals. Through grinding, drying, and storage magnesium stearate can change its original physical properties, thus affecting its lubricating function.   Good magnesium stearate has a low shear lamellar structure [1] and can be properly mixed with the active component of the drug and other excipients to provide lubrication between the compacted powder and the mould wall and to prevent adhesion between the powder and the mould. The larger the specific surface area of magnesium stearate, the easier it is to distribute it evenly over the surface of the particles during the mixing process, and the better the lubrication. Under certain conditions of the mixture and the tablet press, the larger the specific surface area of magnesium stearate the lower the tensile strength of the tablets obtained, the higher the brittleness, and the slower the dissolution and disintegration. Therefore, the surface area is considered an important technical index of pharmaceutical-grade magnesium stearate. The specific sur...
Gas Displacement Method True Density Tester for the True Density of Expandable Microspheres
Gas Displacement Method True Density Tester for the True Density of Expandable Microspheres
Expandable microspheres, small thermoplastic spheres encapsulated with gas, consist of a thermoplastic polymer shell and an encapsulated liquid alkane gas. When the microspheres are heated, the shell softens and the internal air pressure increases dramatically, causing the microspheres to expand dramatically to 60 times their original volume, giving them the dual function of a lightweight filler and a blowing agent. As a lightweight filler, expandable microspheres can greatly reduce the weight of products with very low density, and their density measurement is very important.   Figure 1 Expandable microspheres    Principle of EASY-G 1330 series true density tester EASY-G 1330 series true density tester is based on Archimedes' principle, using small molecular diameter gas as the probe and the ideal gas equation of state PV=nRT to calculate the volume of gas discharged from the material under certain temperature and pressure conditions, so as to determine the true density of the material. The small molecular diameter gas can be used as nitrogen or helium, because helium has the smallest molecular diameter and is a stable inert gas, which is not easy to react with the sample by adsorption, so helium is generally recommended as the replacement gas.    Advantages of EASY-G 1330 series true density tester EASY-G 1330 series true density tester uses gas as the probe, which will not damage the test sample, and the sample can be recycled directly; and in the testing process, the gas will not react with the sample, and will not cause corrosion to the equipment, so the safety factor of the use process is high; furthermore, the gas has the characteristics of easy diffusion, good permeability and good stability, which can penetrate into the internal pores of the material more quickly and make the test results more accurate.   Experimental Procedure   ①Warm-up: Open the cylinder main valve and pressure-reducing table, turn on the power switch at least half an hour in advance, gas pressure-reducing table output pressure: 0.4 ± 0.02 MPa;   ②Instrument Calibration: Before the experiment starts, calibrate the instrument with standard steel balls to ensure that the volume of steel balls tested in all pipelines of the equipment are within the standard value before starting the experiment;   ③Sample Tube Volume Determination: Install the empty sample tube into the instrument cavity and tighten it, set up the software, determine the sample tube volume, and record the corresponding sample tube volume at the end of the experiment;   ④Sample Weighing: In order to reduce the testing error, it is necessary to weigh as many samples as possible, each test shall weigh the sample to about 3/4 of the sample tube volume, weigh the empty tube mass M1, add the sample and weigh M2 to calculate the sample mass;   ⑤Sample Processing: All samples were not pretreated in order to achieve consistency w...
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