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In general, the better a person's memory, the more information they can integrate and process.
In quantum computing, the longer a quantum bit can "remember" a quantum state, the more calculations it can perform. The "memory" of quantum computing can be likened to coherence time.
What is Coherence Time?
Coherence Times is an important indicator of the quality of a quantum bit, it represents the length of time that a quantum bit can remain in a superposition state, the longer the coherence time, the more calculations a quantum computer can perform.
Simply put, coherence time is also the "working time" that a quantum computer can use for computation. Currently, ion trap quantum computing has a clear advantage in realizing long coherence.
What is the Difficulty of Long Coherence?
Quantum bits in most quantum computing routes are highly susceptible to interference from the surrounding environment (Temperature, Noise, and even Cosmic Rays), and trying to maintain their superposition and entanglement for long periods of time is as challenging as trying to keep a group of active kittens in line.
Creating the ideal quantum bit is also challenging because there are physical limitations, such as the nature of the materials and the manufacturing process that can lead to imperfect quantum bits. This is like the presence of an active cat, or even a dog, in the middle of a group of well-behaved cats, which can greatly affect the coherence time.
T1 and T2, Key Technological Metrics in Quantum Computing
When exploring coherence time in quantum computing, we often focus on two parameters: the T1 Time and T2 Time (T1 Time and T2 Time). They are different ways of looking at how long a quantum bit works.
T1 Time determines how long you can distinguish between state 1 and state 0 of a quantum bit.
When a quantum bit is excited to a high energy level (excited state), similar to a classical bit going from 0 to 1. In a classical bit, the 1 state can be maintained relatively easily, but in a quantum bit it will return to a lower energy state in a certain amount of time. This time is the energy relaxation time. During the T1 time, a quantum bit returns from a high energy state to a lower energy state, i.e., it changes from 1 back to 0. This means that the quantum bit loses the information it carries.
The T2 time, on the other hand, represents the time to be able to maintain the phase information in the superposition state; if the T2 time is short, the bit superposition state may evolve into another superposition state or even cease to be a superposition state, thus losing the carried information.
In short, both T1 time and T2 time are temporal parameters on the performance of a quantum bit, and they describe how long a quantum bit remains stable in terms of energy level and phase respectively. For quantum computation, longer T1 and T2 times are the goals pursued by quantum computation because it means that quantum bits can remain stable for a longer period of time, thus improving the accuracy and reliability of computation.
Coherence time of different quantum computing systems?
In different quantum systems, many methods have been used to improve the "memory" of quantum bits, while the ion trap system has a natural advantage in coherence time, and continues to set a new record for the coherence time of a single quantum bit.
Ions in ion trap quantum computing are usually suspended in a vacuum and are subject to fewer external environmental perturbations. Compared to other physical realization schemes, ions in the vacuum of an ion trap are subject to weaker environmental noise and are more isolated from the environment. The ions originate from nature and are unaffected by processing and impurities, which also allows ion-trap quantum computation to maintain a long coherence time.
Vacuum cavity and trap system for the ION I ion trap quantum computer
Recently, CIQTEK ION I, an ion trap quantum computing platform, was officially delivered, and users will conduct research in the fields of quantum computing, quantum simulation and quantum algorithms based on the platform. According to public reports, the platform is the first ion trap quantum computing platform in China to be commercially delivered.
CIQTEK ION I ion trap quantum computing platform can manipulate the number of bits 2~12 optional, single-bit gate fidelity exceeds 99.97%, two-bit gate fidelity exceeds 99.7%, the coherence time T2* is greater than 100 ms. The system can be stabilized by imprisoning the number of ions exceeding 90+, the number of one-dimensional ion trap crystals for several hours unchanged cloud.